Absence: Brief loss of consciousness for a few seconds, characteristic of a type of general seizure without convulsion

Absences atypical: Absences difficult to recognise because they start and end gradually

ALT : alanine aminotransferase enzyme

AST : aspartate transaminase enzyme

Clonic seizures or convulsions: More or less rapid jerky movements, repeated at more or less regular intervals

Double blind randomized placebo controlled trials: A double-blind, placebo controlled study follows a specific set of procedures to ensure that the results obtained are dependable and free from subjective bias. It is considered as the ‘gold standard’ of clinical research studies. Until the study is complete, neither the study researchers nor the participants know who receives the study test substance, and who receives an identical dummy substance, called a placebo. This ‘blindness’ ensures that the personal beliefs and expectations of either the researchers or the study subjects do not undermine the objectivity of the results.

γGT: gamma glutamyl transpeptidase enzyme

Myoclonic seizures: Sudden, very brief movements, sometimes repeated, similar to “jumping” (the physical reaction to being startled)

Neutrophils : most abundant type of white blood cells in mammals and form that essential part of the innate immune system

Partial (focal) seizures: Seizures involving only a limited area of the brain.

Pivotal study: Study which presents the data required by a regulatory agency to decide whether or not to approve a drug. A pivotal study is normally a well-controlled, randomized, of adequate size, and whenever possible, double-blind.

Responders (STICLO trial): patients with a reduction of at least 50% of seizures compared to the baseline.

Tonic-clonic seizures: Seizures during which a tonic phase is succeeded by a clonic phase, with loss of consciousness, still known as ‘grand mal’.